Cancer prevention through proper nutrition
The diet is involved in the formation of about one-third of the cancer cases. The links between diet and cancer, however, are still in many ways incomplete. People, according to the following recommendations, life but a healthier and may have a lower risk of developing cancer: Plant-based foods (fruits, vegetables/salads, cereal products, etc.) prefer to avoid Obesity, consumption of (animal) fats, “red” meat, and of salt limit alcoholic beverages avoid Smoking and be physically active.
The cancer development is significantly influenced by environmental factors, and the prevention is so accessible. Diet is for about 35% of the cancer cases ( -). Cancer develops in several phases, a development may take decades. Environmental factors that can influence the occurrence of Cancer at all stages, in order to allow sufficient time for this development to affect.
The importance of carcinogenic and anti-carcinogenic substances for humans to be cohorts in case-control, and intervention studies are reviewed. These are limited in their expressiveness, so that conclusions on the causality of an observed need to be slope from the totality of the studies, taking into account a number of criteria considered. The causality is not “proved so often”, but of varying degrees of probability.
|The Consumption Of Meat/Stomach Cancer||possible direct connection|
|The Consumption Of Meat/Intestine Cancer (Colon/Rectum)||more likely to be a direct connection|
|Consumption of alcohol/cancer in the upper respiratory tract or the upper digestive tract||more convincing direct connection|
|high fruit and vegetable consumption and cancer in the respiratory tract or imVerdauungstrakt||convincing indirect connection (low fruit consumption =risk of cancer)|
Importance of nutrition for the most common cancer sites
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the Swiss woman. In the breast cancer development, the life seems to be long estrogen exposure play a role. High alcohol consumption, Obesity, and weight gain (for breast cancer post-menopausal) probable dietary risk factors. For (animal) fat/meat as well as fruits and vegetables (inverse) correlations are weaker.
Prostate cancer is at the forefront of new Cancer cases in the Swiss man. Hormonal imbalance also appears to play a role in prostate cancer. Of the studied nutritional factors, none achieved a convincing evidence. A fat – and meat-rich diet increase, vegetables may lower the risk of prostate cancer. Selenium and Vitamin E have been found in intervention studies as a protective.
In Switzerland, lung cancer in man is at the forefront of cancer mortality in women, after breast and colorectal cancer third. In recent years, the lung cancer incidence decreases with the Swiss men and women. In America, more women die of lung than of breast cancer. Lung cancer is a result of cigarette Smoking. High vegetable and fruit consumption reduced the lung cancer, but it remains unclear which ingredients could be for the protective effect responsible. Intervention studies rather speak against a protective effect of b-carotene, and in high-risk groups, even a cancer-promoting effect suspect.
The evidence is convincing that a high vegetable consumption and physical activity reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. For the rectum, especially relationships with vegetables of the cruciferous family (e.g., Broccoli, cauliflower). Alcohol and red meat probably increase the risk of this cancer.
Dietary recommendations for cancer prevention
The links between diet and cancer are in many respects still incomplete. Nevertheless, already usable diet recommendations can be made. Persons, according to the following recommendations, live a healthier life and may have a lower risk of developing cancer.
- Plant foods prefer
- Overweight, under weight, and weight gain avoid
- Daily 400-800 g of various fruits and vegetables/salads and 600-800 g different, minimally processed grain products, legumes,potatoes, rice etc consume
- Consumption of (animal) fat restrict
- Consumption of “red”, cured, smoked, strong grilled meat limit
- Consumption of salt is reduced
- Alcoholic beverages to avoid
- Physical activity can increase
The importance of nutrition in cancer therapy
A diet for cancer there is no cure. Although many, the various theories based, alternative diets are touted to cure; the alleged successes but are not used enough. “Miracle diets” can affect, in many tumor patients, nutritional status to further deteriorate. In about half of all cancer patients, disorders in food intake, food utilization, or metabolism are observed.
These nutritional problems can be directly due to the cancer. On the other hand, they may represent systemic effects of the tumor (cachexia, anorexia) or a result of the operating, rays are therapeutic and medicinal tumour therapy and the psychological stress. Nutrition therapeutic measures can influence the life expectancy, limited; nevertheless, they are intended to prevent life-threatening malnutrition, but more often, subjective well-being of the patient improve.
Source: Eichholzer M. nutrition and cancer. Ther Shift 2000; 57:146-151.