Methods Of Contraception – Hormonal Contraception
Depending on the composition of hormones, such agents prevent ovulation (“ovulation inhibitors”), thicken the mucus in the cervix and make it difficult for the sperm to Penetrate, or the implantation of the egg to bind into the uterus. In the last few years, in addition to the since the beginning of the Sixties used the classic “anti-baby pill”, a number of Alternatives have been developed.
Oral Contraceptives (Birth Control Pills)
You are swallowed about 21 or 22 days on a daily basis in the form of tablets, followed by an interval in Taking of 7 or 6 days. Protect you immediately, but must be regularly taken at the latest 12 hours after the normal rhythm. Antibiotics and some anti-epileptic drugs may affect their action.
This is still the most popular Form of contraception, several categories can be distinguished:
- conventional pill (Combination therapy): prevents ovulation by a mixture of Estrogens and Gestagens. In the case of single-phase preparations, the mixing ratio stays about the taking period is constant, in the case of two – phase and three-phase preparations, it changes to suit better the female cycle (Pearl-Index: 0,1-0,9)
- Micro pill: is a conventional pill similar, but has a lower estrogen content (Pearl-Index: 0,2-0,5)
- Mini-pill: contains only low-dose progestins, and so must be taken according to a strict schedule (Pearl-Index: 0,15-3).
Since 2002, established new progestin drospirenone (“Yasmin®”) counteracts the Estrogenic-caused water retention and the associated weight gain, has a positive effect on the skin and may also help with premenstrual syndrome. Other, longer-known Progestogens, such as Chlormadinone, and Dienogest are also active against acne, hair loss, and increased body hair.
Vaginal Ring (NuvaRing®)
This soft, flexible Ring is made of plastic, has a diameter of 54 mm and contains a Depot of an Estrogen-progestin mixture. It is these hormones to be constant and acts as a mini-pill (Pearl Index: 0,65). It is introduced by the women themselves such as a Tampon and after three weeks away. After a week’s break, the next is used. He is since February 2003, available on the German market.
Contraceptive patch (Evra® or Lisvy®)
The 4.5 x 4.5 cm, colour of the skin and the hormone patch Evra® is available in Germany since 2003. There will be Estrogen-progestin mixture continuously through the skin into the body, glued on Butt, upper arm, abdomen, or upper back and changed weekly. As in the conventional pill, a week’s break (Pearl-Index: 0,88 follows after three weeks; in the case of overweight women is worse).
Since 2015, the low-dose, transparent, and about 11 cm2 contraceptive patch Lisvy® is also available (Pearl-Index: 0,81; for severely obese women data are not sufficient).
Contraceptive Rods (Implanon®)
This method of contraception with a stick that emits hormones, since June 2000, in Germany on the market. As the three-month syringe, it contains only progestins, which are slowly released, contraceptive protection is very safe and lasts for about three years (Pearl Index: 0,1-0,9). The 3-4 cm long and 2 mm thin swab is pushed by the gynecologist under the skin, on the inner side of the upper arm.
Similar to the mini pill, this contraceptive contains only progestins, however, in a depot form. It is sprayed every three months by the woman doctor in the upper arm or buttocks and slowly its active ingredients (Pearl-Index: 0,2-0,5).
Hormonal Coil (Mirena®)
As the copper spiral, the hormone spiral (“intrauterine System” = IUS) the woman doctor, and is inserted into the uterus and can remain for up to 5 years. Instead of copper you are from there, continuous Progestogens. It combines the advantages of the classical spiral with the methods of the mini-pill or three-month injectable and is very safe (the Pearl Index of 0.05-0.1).
back more article content
- Methods of prevention
- Prevention methods – Mechanical and chemical prevention
- Methods Of Contraception – Hormonal Contraception
- Methods Of Contraception – Natural Family Planning