The basic building blocks of a healthy diet
A healthy diet is the basic requirement for physical and mental well-being and for the performance of our organism. Although the majority of people, the importance of a healthy diet is aware of the reality in our affluent society often different. The modern diet and way of life has not only given us a wide range of foods and beverages, but also faulty eating habits. These play a crucial role in the emergence of diseases of civilisation such as high blood pressure, increased blood fat levels, diabetes, Obesity, stroke, and heart attack.
What is the meaning of a healthy diet?
A healthy diet is a low fat means of carbohydrate-rich, balanced diet with adequate fluid intake. It ensures an optimal supply with nutrients carbohydrates, protein and fat, the micro-vitamins, mineral substances and trace elements, nutrients, and fiber and water. Our body needs these nutrients as fuel to maintain life functions, for growth and activity.
The three main nutrients
Protein, carbohydrates and fats are the three main components of our food. Fat contains the highest energy content and 9.3 kcal (39 kJ) per gram. Carbohydrates and protein have an equivalent energy content of 4.1 kcal per gram. In the case of a healthy, balanced diet should
- 50-60 percent of daily calories from carbohydrates
- 15-20 percent from protein and
- 25-30 percent come from fat.
As numerous studies prove, the average citizen of the industrialized world have far more fat calories. Depending on the country, the proportion of fat is 40 to 50 percent, sometimes even more of the daily food. This is especially important to the development of Obesity is inevitable.
Your daily calorie requirement is primarily on the gender, age and level of physical activity. In the case of light physical work it is for women to a maximum of 2000 kcal and for men is 2300 kcal. In the case of heavy physical activity, it is higher; however, a maximum of 3100 kcal for women and 3500 kcal for men.
The most important building materials of our body. They are made up of small units called amino acids. From protein molecules not only are all the cells, organs, and nerves are constructed, but also hormones, enzymes and messenger substances. 8 of the 20 amino acids the body can not make itself, they are essential, so vital, and need to be taken with food. In addition, an energy carrier is a protein.
Proteins are of animal or vegetable origin. They come in meat, sausage, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, cheese, milk and dairy products. In plant foods, they are stuck mainly in legumes, soy products, whole grain cereals, nuts and Cabbage. In General, a daily intake of 1 g of Protein per kg of body weight is recommended.
It is often made the error, animal equate protein sources with meat. In addition to the Egg, provide milk and dairy products high quality protein. Animal sources of protein and fat are often containing. Therefore, vegetable sources of protein are also recommended, as this is usually much less fat is absorbed.
Carbohydrates are the main energy supplier for the human body. One distinguishes between single, double, and complex carbohydrates.
Simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides) consist of a single sugar building block: as the glucose in honey or fructose in the fruit. Double sugars (disaccharides) are composed of two such blocks. The sucrose in the cube – powder – or granulated sugar or the lactose from the milk.
Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), many of the sugar components, the need to take apart the body. These carbs are stuck, for example, in cereals, whole grain products, bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, legumes and also fruit and vegetables.
- The carbohydrate content of our diet should consist primarily of complex carbohydrates. Because you must first be in the small intestine is split, it is a slower, but continuous into the blood. It comes to a long time constant blood sugar level. Thus, a consistent energy supply over an extended period of time. In addition, be supplied with these carbohydrates important vitamins, minerals, and fiber. The body must also expend similar to that of protein, energy, to make long-chain carbohydrates recyclable.
- The simple sugar (Mono – and disaccharides) are converted by the body more rapidly into glucose and enter faster into the blood. You let blood sugar levels rise rapidly and increase the insulin secretion. More Insulin means increased removal of glucose, a reduction in blood glucose level and again to the sensation of Hunger.
You should thus consume little simple carbohydrates and better in the case of complex pitch. Superfluous carbohydrates are not excreted, but as the body’s own strength in the liver and in the muscles as a quickly usable energy stored. In addition, under certain circumstances, excess glucose can be converted into fat. This can result in a very carbohydrate-rich diet (about 500 g of sugar a day), even if it is low in fat, the well-known fat pad.
Fats are today largely as a Fattening, because you have twice as many calories as carbohydrates or protein. But without fat our body comes from. Since fats serve as a source of energy, taste-makers, and are indispensable for the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K from intestine and blood circulation. The smallest components of fat are subdivided according to their structure in unsaturated and saturated fatty acids.
- Saturated fatty acids are stuck predominantly in animal foods, such as Butter, cream, Mayonnaise, meat, sausage, cheese but also in Palm and coconut oil. Saturated fats are mainly involved in the development of civilization diseases and the body easily storable.
- Unsaturated fatty acids, such as, for example, the often-mentioned linoleic acid, are essential substances that the body relies. They are mainly found in vegetable oils, seeds, Avocados, legumes, cereals, as well as in sea fish, such as salmon, herring, mackerel, and tuna. They meet in the organism, many important functions, for example, as building materials of the cells and nerves and as a starting material for the formation of hormones.
Many people take daily to many saturated fats. The power on duration of overweight and sick. It comes to elevated blood values, the increased level of cholesterol fat and as a consequence to the formation of atherosclerotic deposits on the walls of the blood vessels (“hardening of the arteries”). This increases the risk of developing, for example, of a thrombosis, or suffering a heart attack.
The practice does not apply to: eat fat more than 60 to 70 grams and less food rich in saturated fatty acids. For this, they prefer to build twice a week a Portion of fish and high quality vegetable oils in your diet and pay attention to hidden fats in sausages, chocolate, etc.
Also beware of the combination is attached to fat and simple carbohydrates, as they are often found in cakes with cream or butter filling. They lead to a faster storage of fat in our fat cells.
Water is another vital part of our diet, although there is no energy and only minor amounts of mineral and trace elements. Water is an integral part of our body’s cells, blood, lymph, and is required as a transport medium for nutrients and metabolic products, digestive juices, as a temperature regulator and a solvent.
The Water of the body depends on the age, sex and body content of fat. An adult human consists of approximately 60 % water. This shows the importance of water for our body. The minimum requirement for fluid is 1.5 to 2.0 liters per day and should be covered with water, tea and unsweetened, it is best to dilute fruit juices.
Because of its effect on the gastro-intestinal tract (stimulates the production of gastric juice and bile), and on the nervous system, should coffee be consumed in moderation. Coffee and black tea also contain waxes and Cream, which can cause a gastric irritation. Excessive indulgence of sweet beverages should also be discouraged, as they take on the calorie account is low.
This name is incorrectly associated, rather, something Negative, just Ballast. In doing so, you fulfill especially in the gastro-intestinal tract for people with important tasks. They are non-digestible plant fibers, predominantly belong to the complex carbohydrates. Due to their large water binding and Swelling capacity for the digestion of great importance. They bind excess stomach acid and sources in the intestine. The intestinal activity is promoted and constipation is prevented.
Fiber is a substance found, for example, as Cellulose and pectin in salad, vegetables and cereals. It is important, however, that in the case of a high-fiber diet also enough rich to drink, since it comes otherwise to a hard bowel movement. There is a recording of a minimum, it is recommended most 30 g of fiber per day.
For weight loss fibre are particularly recommended, as they swell in the stomach strong, the stomach is slow to leave, and as a result, a prolonged feeling of satiety.
Vital Substances (Micro-Nutrients)
Among the micronutrients, the vitamins and minerals. Vitamins the body is not or only in small quantities. Therefore, you need to be taken with food. They are often components of enzymes, the small helpers that allow our metabolism.
Metabolic means to digest the food and gain energy, cells in tissues and organs to build up or renew, and that is no longer needed retiring. If vitamins are absent, disrupted the smooth running of important digestive and forming processes. Much of the main nutrients can only be with the help of vitamins for the body to be deducible Many areas of the vitamins are known exactly. Thus, Vitamin K ensures that blood clotting, Vitamin A for vision and Vitamin D controls the installation of calcium, phosphorus and other minerals in the bone tissue. The B vitamins are often components of enzymes and are thus involved in many metabolic functions.
Vitamins can be divided into two groups: the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E soluble, and K and the water-soluble vitamins of the B group and Vitamin C. they are mostly found in fresh food. They are not lost during prolonged storage and heat slightly. Fruits and fruit therefore only short steaming or stewing. In addition, water will be stored-soluble vitamins only in small amounts in the body. Therefore, the human organism is dependent on the regular intake of this vitamin group.
Minerals, not energy, such as vitamins carriers. You are, however for many functions of the body essential and can not be produced by the body. They form bone and tooth structure, support, enzymes, provide for the conduction of the nerves that control the permeability of cells, and regulate the pressure in the tissue.
Important minerals for example: iron is essential for the formation of red blood cells, calcium, Magnesium, and phosphorus for bone formation, and Iodine for good thyroid function. Minerals are needed in only very small amounts are called trace elements. Milk, liver, whole grain products and vegetables are particularly rich in these vital and should not be missing in your diet. Also mineral water is a good source of Minerals.