Vitamins in the focal point
In order to stay healthy, our body needs, in addition to the main vitamins, minerals and trace elements nutrients. These substances in small amounts of vital operations. A balanced diet with fresh fruits, vegetables, dairy and whole grain products will ensure the needs usually. Some vitamins can not, or only from certain precursors are formed in the body at all. In addition, the organism can save the vitamins often only to a small extent. A regular intake of vitamins with food for the preservation of the life processes must be ensured.
Among the mentioned vitamins: vitamins A, C and E are of particular importance. These vitamins act as antioxidants as a so-called free-radical scavengers. In the body can form aggressive oxygen radicals, also called oxidants. They are produced in normal metabolism when the body uses energy when exercising, or mentally strenuous activities, lack of sleep, or nerve-related Stress, and, increasingly, by external influences such as UV rays, Smoking or excessive consumption of alcohol. The free radicals attack cell membranes and destroy them.
When is increases the need for vitamins?
- During the growth phase in children and adolescents
- In pregnancy and lactation
- In the case of taking the “pill”
- In long lasting stressful situations
- During convalescence and in old age
- By Smoking or alcohol
- In the case of chronic diseases, e.g. Diabetes
Vitamin A – Retinol
Vitamin A is especially important for Seeing in the dark, which hides the growth in children and the build-up of skin and slime. Deficiency of Retinol leads to the so-called night blindness. Other symptoms of dry skin or brittle hair. Retinol is found only in animal foods. Precursors of the Vitamin, called provitamins (such as Beta-carotene) contained in plant foods. The body can form from these precursors, even Vitamin A. Retinol must not be overdosed to poisoning because it is in high doses, the so-called hypervitaminosis, can come. In contrast, the provitamins can not cause hypervitaminosis.
The group of B-vitamins
Include the B vitamins Vitamin B1, B6, B12, folic acid, Biotin, Pantothenic acid and Niacin. These vitamins play a crucial role in cell renewal and regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Deficiency symptoms can including disorders of the blood System, the skin or the mucous membrane lead to changes and nerve disorders.
Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid
The typical deficiency disease of scurvy is extinct. Nevertheless, there are still deficiencies. Those who eat little fresh fruit or vegetables, or a infection suffers, you need more Vitamin C. in addition, in the case of a high-level tension. Smokers have up to 40% increased need for Vitamin C. Vitamin C has diverse effects in the organism. The key features are strengthening of the immune system, free radical scavenger, participation in the development of the connective tissue and increase the absorption of Iron from food.
Vitamin D – Calciferol
Vitamin D is essential for bone metabolism is of crucial importance. Without a sufficient supply with Vitamin D to build bones and teeth is not possible. Vitamin D can be produced by the body itself. Under the influence of sunlight, Vitamin D in the active Form is converted into Vitamin D3 – Cholecalciferol,. A necessary condition for the supply of the body with this Vitamin on a regular but short stays in the sun.
Sometimes the self-formed Vitamin D is not enough, however, and must, therefore, be administered in addition. Especially in the first year of life, intake of Vitamin D is not important, since the in-house production and the Vitamin D content of the milk for the increased demand is not sufficient at this time. Infants get Vitamin D3 tablets to support bone formation.
Vitamin E – Tocopherol
Vitamin E, as vitamins A, D and K to the group of fat-soluble vitamins and can result in high doses to hypervitaminosis. Tocopherol is particularly important for the full functioning of the muscles, connective tissue, cardiovascular system and the immune system. Vitamin E protects the body also in front of many harmful influences, since it is such as vitamins C and a, a free radical scavenger, and this cell can intercept damaging particles. Natural Vitamin E is found in green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, grain germ, oatmeal, and Butter and milk. According to the recommendations, a healthy adult should take 12 mg of Vitamin E daily.
Vitamin K is involved in the formation of blood-clotting factors and the bone metabolism. Vitamin K is supplied with food, but also by the natural intestinal flora produces. Green vegetables as well as fish and dairy products contain Vitamin K. deficiency of Vitamin K can lead to an increased bleeding tendency, impaired bone development, as well as diarrhea or loss of appetite.